IGARSS 2001 Materials
Please click on the title link to view an Acrobat version of the paper or click the [ Presentation ] link to view the Powerpoint presentation for each topic. Some paper and presentation files were not available when the CD went to press and their title entries are not linked.
Session 1 Papers and Presentations
- Weather Prediction Improvement Using Advanced Satellite Technology
Authors: F. Einaudi, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center; L. Uccellini, NOAA/NWS; J. Purdom, NOAA/NESDIS; D. Rogers, NOAA/OOAR; R. Gelaro, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center; J. Dodge, NASA Headquarters; R. Atlas, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center; S. Lord, NOAA/NWS
Abstract: We discuss in this paper some of the problems that exist today in
the full utilization of satellite data to improve weather forecasts and we
propose specific recommendations to solve them. This discussion can be viewed as
an aspect of the general debate on how best to organize the transition from
research to operational satellites and how to evaluate the impact of a research
instrument on numerical weather predictions. A method for providing this
transition is offered by the National Polar-Orbiting Operational Environmental
Satellite System (NPOESS) Preparatory Project (NPP). This mission will bridge
the time between the present NOAA and Department of Defense (DOD) polar orbiting
missions and the initiation of the converged NPOESS series and will evaluate
some of the Earth Observing System (EOS) instruments as appropriate for
operational missions. Thus, this mission can be viewed as an effort to meet the
operational requirements of NOAA and DOD and the research requirements of NASA.
- Living on a Restless Earth
- Advancing our Biological and Ecological Predictive Capabilities
Authors: J. Smith, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center;
D. Wickland, NASA Headquarters; M. Crawford, NOAA National
Ocean Service; J. Cihlar, Canada Centre for Remote Sensing;
J. Schnase, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center
Abstract: Policy makers, resource managers, and decision makes in the public and private sectors increasingly call for more and better predictions of future environmental conditions and of the impacts that environmental and societal change may have on ecosystems and the ecological goods and services that people depend upon. By 2025, a suite of powerful new remote sensing, analytical, and computational tools and capabilities will be in place. These tools will be used to assess the health and functioning of global ecosystems and to predict the effects of natural and anthropogenic change, such as extreme natural events, climate change, changes in land use, pollution, species invasions, and pest and disease outbreaks. The resulting ecological forecasts will incorporate the interactive effects of multiple biotic and abiotic stressors as well as socioeconomic factors.
- Pathways to Predicting Atmospheric Composition
Authors: P. DeCola, NASA Headquarters; M. Schoeberl,
NASA Goddard Space Flight Center; J. Burrows, University of
Bremen; D. Jacob, Harvard University; J. Gleason, NASA Goddard
Space Flight Center
Abstract: With advances in our observational, modeling and data assimilation capabilities, accurate atmospheric composition forecasts can be achieved with significant benefits to society. This paper will highlight some of what is needed to realize this goal, such as expanded scientific knowledge, advanced remote sensing capabilities and modeling.
- Ocean, Ice, and Climate: The Slow Dance of a Complex System
Authors: C. Koblinsky, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center;
M. Rienecker, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center;
D. Adamec, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center; W. Abdalati,
NASA Office of Earth Science; E. Lindstrom, NASA Office of
Abstract: The time horizon of global change is on scales of years, decades, centuries, and beyond, and this variability can have tremendous regional impact. The importance of the oceans and cryosphere in climate change increases with time scale because of their large thermal inertia. Over the past few years, NASA’s Earth Science Enterprise has developed a research strategy to address climate relevant questions about the ocean circulation varying on interannual, decadal, and longer time scales?; and What changes are occurring in the mass of the Earth’s ice cover? This strategy starts with basic exploration utilizing satellite measurements, leads to improved understanding by incorporating data and models, and ends with improved prediction and benefit for the future. In this paper we consider the science and technology challenges for the ocean and cyrosphere strategy over the next twenty-five years.
- The Earth Science Vision: An Intelligent Web of Sensors
Authors: M. Schoeberl, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center;
D. Andrucyk, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center; G. Paules,
NASA Office of Earth Science; R. Connerton, NASA Goddard Space
Flight Center; M. Steiner, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.
Abstract: In this vision of the future a globally responsive
web of space-based sensors, processing networks, and distribution
systems will create and deliver information products to users
throughout the world. Great leaps forward in the ability to
predict earth systems behavior and response will be its hallmark.
One challenge is that a greater scientific understanding of
basic phenomenology is required and is essential in the evolution
of this vision. The second challenge is that key technical
capabilities are needed to implement these systems. Revolutionary
advancements are required in many scientific and technical
areas. A computer-generated video will illustrate concepts
of how the sensorweb may evolve and operate. Realization will
require participation on a grand scale—national; international;
and commercial partnering. A long-term commitment among all
stock holders and constituents will be essential to make it
work. The payoffs on a global scale can be significant both
economically and societal.
Session 2 Papers and Presentations
- Earth Science System of the Future: Observing, Processing, and Delivering Data Products Directly to Users
[ Presentation ]
Authors: D. Crisp, Jet Propulsion Laboratory/CIT;
K. Delin, Jet Propulsion Laboratory/CIT; Y. Chao, Jet Propulsion
Laboratory/CIT; L. Lemmerman, Jet Propulsion Laboratory/CIT;
E. Torres, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center; G. Paules, NASA
Abstract: Advances in our understanding and ability
to predict changes in our environment will require more comprehensive
and coordinated measurements, data delivery systems, and modeling
tools. The advanced Earth observing system will incorporate
an integrated web of sensors deployed on the surface, in the
air, and in space. The space-based assets will include both
active and passive sensors in low Earth orbit, large aperture
sensors in geostationary orbits, and sentinel satellites at
L1 and L2. Data collected by these platforms will be coordinated
by an advanced, semiautonomous, network that links these systems
each other and provides a seamless interface with data processing
centers. There, advanced numerical modeling tools will be
used to rapidly assimilate, evaluate, and disseminate this
information directly to users. To illustrate utility of this
system architecture, we describe its application to studies
of rapidly evolving natural hazards.
- The Future of Instrument Technology for Space-based Remote Sensing for NASA’s Earth Science Enterprise
[ Presentation ]
Authors: F. Peri, Jr., NASA Goddard Space Flight Center;
J. Hartley, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center; J. Duda, NASA
Goddard Space Flight Center.
Abstract: The vision of the Earth Science Enterprise (ESE) of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) established a variety of science challenges for the next 25 years, relating to predictions of weather, climate, and foreseeable changes in the Earth’s environment. In this paper, we discuss the attendant needs for space-based remote sensing technologies. In addition, we suggest some strategies for deploying the necessary assets.
- Information System Technology Challenges for NASA’s Earth Science Enterprise
[ Presentation ]
Authors: Glenn Prescott, NASA Headquarters; S. Smith,
NASA Goddard Space Flight Center; K. More, NASA Goddard Space
Abstract: Future NASA Earth observing satellites will carry high-precision instruments capable of producing large amounts of scientific data. The anticipated networking of these instrument
platforms into a web-like array of sensors creates significant challenges in the processing, transmission, storage and distribution of data and data products—the essential elements of what we refer to as "Information Technology". Future systems will require the fastest processors, the highest communication channel transfer rates, and the largest data storage capacity to insure that data flows smoothly from the satellite-based instrument to the ground-based archive. In this paper, we discuss those critical information technologies for Earth observing satellites that will support the next generation of space-based scientific measurements of planet Earth, and insure that data and information products provided by these systems will be accessible to scientists and the user community in general.
- Earth Science Vision: Platform Technology Challenges
[ Presentation ]
Authors: L. Lemmerman, Jet Propulsion Laboratory/CIT;
K. Bhasin, NASA Glenn Research Center; J. Bristow, NASA Goddard
Space Flight Center.
Abstract: Advanced new platform technologies are critical
to the realization of the Earth Science Vision in the 2020
time frame Examples of the platform technology challenges
and current state-of-the-art capabilities are presented.
- A Geosynchronous LIDAR System for Atmospheric Winds and Moisture Measurements
[ Presentation ]
Author: G. Emmitt, Simpson Weather Associates, Inc.
Abstract: An observing system comprised of two LIDARS in geosynchronous orbit would enable synoptic and meso-scale measurement of atmospheric winds and moisture, both of which are key first-order variables of the Earth’s weather equation. Simultaneous measurement of these parameters at fast revisit rates promises large advancements in our weather prediction skills. Such
unprecedented capabilities would a) yield greatly improved and finer resolution initial conditions for models, b) make existing costly and cumbersome measurement approaches obsolete, and c) obviate the use of numerical techniques needed to correct data obtained using present observing systems. Additionally, simultaneous synoptic wind and moisture observations would lead to improvements in model parameterizations, and in our knowledge of small-scale weather processes. Technology and science data product assessments are ongoing. Results will be presented during the conference.
- A Geosynchronous Synthetic Aperture Radar; for Tectonic Mapping, Disaster Management and Measurements of Vegetation and Soil Moisture
[ Presentation ]
Authors: S. Madsen, Jet Propulsion Laboratory; W. Edelstein,
Jet Propulsion Laboratory; L. DiDomenico, Jet Propulsion Laboratory;
J. LaBrecque, Jet Propulsion Laboratory.
Abstract: A geosynchronous synthetic aperture radar (SAR) with an orbit inclination of 50-65o can provide daily coverage of al of North and South America. Longitudinally, the width of the mapped area would be on the order of +50o at the Equator, somewhat more at the most northern/southern latitudes. Within the area mapped, very good temporal coverage can be obtained—up to several mappings during the 12 hours per day where the satellite is in the "right" hemisphere. This would be a key capability in relation to disaster management, tectonic mapping and modeling, vegetation and soil moisture mapping, and for operational and semi-operational requirements. A constellation of geosynchronous satellites could provide global coverage.
- Interferometric Characterization of the Earth’s Atmosphere from Lagrange Point 2
[ Presentation ]
Author: J. Herman, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.
Abstract: Not available
- Processors, Pipelines, and Protocols for Advanced Modeling Networks
[ Presentation ]
Authors: J. Coughlan, NASA Ames Research Center; E.
Bjorkstedt, Santa Cruz Laboratory.
Abstract: NASA’s Earth Science Enterprise has established the goal of developing a predictive capability for the Earth System. NASA uses the vantage point of space to provide information about Earth’s land, atmosphere, ice, oceans, and biota that is obtainable in no other way. To enhance predictive capabilities, NASA is planning a sensor web to collect data across a range of spatio-temporal scales. The end-to-end process of data collection, data assimilation, biogeophysical modeling and prediction is inseparable and predominately enabled by software. Software transforms the raw data into usable products and information and software disseminates these products to end-users. New information system technologies are needed to enable better prediction, flexible data assimilation and model coupling to build integrated Earth system models. Advancement of our modeling capabilities will require not only faster processing, but new programming methods, new algorithms, high-speed data pipelines, and interoperable architectures that allow the networking of diverse Earth System models.
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