Earth Science Enterprise
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IGARSS 2001 Materials

Please click on the title link to view an Acrobat version of the paper or click the [ Presentation ] link to view the Powerpoint presentation for each topic. Some paper and presentation files were not available when the CD went to press and their title entries are not linked.

Session 1 Papers and Presentations

  • Weather Prediction Improvement Using Advanced Satellite Technology
    IGARSS  07_09_13:00

    Authors: F. Einaudi, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center; L. Uccellini, NOAA/NWS; J. Purdom, NOAA/NESDIS; D. Rogers, NOAA/OOAR; R. Gelaro, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center; J. Dodge, NASA Headquarters; R. Atlas, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center; S. Lord, NOAA/NWS

    We discuss in this paper some of the problems that exist today in the full utilization of satellite data to improve weather forecasts and we propose specific recommendations to solve them. This discussion can be viewed as an aspect of the general debate on how best to organize the transition from research to operational satellites and how to evaluate the impact of a research instrument on numerical weather predictions. A method for providing this transition is offered by the National Polar-Orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) Preparatory Project (NPP).  This mission will bridge the time between the present NOAA and Department of Defense (DOD) polar orbiting missions and the initiation of the converged NPOESS series and will evaluate some of the Earth Observing System (EOS) instruments as appropriate for operational missions. Thus, this mission can be viewed as an effort to meet the operational requirements of NOAA and DOD and the research requirements of NASA.
  • Living on a Restless Earth
    IGARSS  07_09_13:20
  • Advancing our Biological and Ecological Predictive Capabilities
    IGARSS  07_09_13:40

    Authors: J. Smith, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center; D. Wickland, NASA Headquarters; M. Crawford, NOAA National Ocean Service; J. Cihlar, Canada Centre for Remote Sensing; J. Schnase, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

    Policy makers, resource managers, and decision makes in the public and private sectors increasingly call for more and better predictions of future environmental conditions and of the impacts that environmental and societal change may have on ecosystems and the ecological goods and services that people depend upon. By 2025, a suite of powerful new remote sensing, analytical, and computational tools and capabilities will be in place. These tools will be used to assess the health and functioning of global ecosystems and to predict the effects of natural and anthropogenic change, such as extreme natural events, climate change, changes in land use, pollution, species invasions, and pest and disease outbreaks. The resulting ecological forecasts will incorporate the interactive effects of multiple biotic and abiotic stressors as well as socioeconomic factors.
  • Pathways to Predicting Atmospheric Composition
    IGARSS  07_09_14:00

    Authors: P. DeCola, NASA Headquarters; M. Schoeberl, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center; J. Burrows, University of Bremen; D. Jacob, Harvard University; J. Gleason, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

    With advances in our observational, modeling and data assimilation capabilities, accurate atmospheric composition forecasts can be achieved with significant benefits to society. This paper will highlight some of what is needed to realize this goal, such as expanded scientific knowledge, advanced remote sensing capabilities and modeling.
  • Ocean, Ice, and Climate: The Slow Dance of a Complex System
    IGARSS  07_09_14:20

    C. Koblinsky, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center; M. Rienecker, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center; D. Adamec, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center; W. Abdalati, NASA Office of Earth Science; E. Lindstrom, NASA Office of Earth Science.

    Abstract: The time horizon of global change is on scales of years, decades, centuries, and beyond, and this variability can have tremendous regional impact. The importance of the oceans and cryosphere in climate change increases with time scale because of their large thermal inertia. Over the past few years, NASA’s Earth Science Enterprise has developed a research strategy to address climate relevant questions about the ocean circulation varying on interannual, decadal, and longer time scales?; and What changes are occurring in the mass of the Earth’s ice cover?  This strategy starts with basic exploration utilizing satellite measurements, leads to improved understanding by incorporating data and models, and ends with improved prediction and benefit for the future. In this paper we consider the science and technology challenges for the ocean and cyrosphere strategy over the next twenty-five years.
  • The Earth Science Vision: An Intelligent Web of Sensors
    IGARSS  07_09_14:40

    Authors: M. Schoeberl, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center; D. Andrucyk, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center; G. Paules, NASA Office of Earth Science; R. Connerton, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center; M. Steiner, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.

    Abstract: In this vision of the future a globally responsive web of space-based sensors, processing networks, and distribution systems will create and deliver information products to users throughout the world. Great leaps forward in the ability to predict earth systems behavior and response will be its hallmark. One challenge is that a greater scientific understanding of basic phenomenology is required and is essential in the evolution of this vision. The second challenge is that key technical capabilities are needed to implement these systems. Revolutionary advancements are required in many scientific and technical areas. A computer-generated video will illustrate concepts of how the sensorweb may evolve and operate. Realization will require participation on a grand scale—national; international; and commercial partnering. A long-term commitment among all stock holders and constituents will be essential to make it work. The payoffs on a global scale can be significant both economically and societal.

Session 2 Papers and Presentations

  • Earth Science System of the Future: Observing, Processing, and Delivering Data Products Directly to Users   [ Presentation Download Powerpoint presentation ]
    IGARSS  07_10_08:20

    Authors:  D. Crisp, Jet Propulsion Laboratory/CIT; K. Delin, Jet Propulsion Laboratory/CIT; Y. Chao, Jet Propulsion Laboratory/CIT; L. Lemmerman, Jet Propulsion Laboratory/CIT; E. Torres, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center; G. Paules, NASA Headquarters.

      Advances in our understanding and ability to predict changes in our environment will require more comprehensive and coordinated measurements, data delivery systems, and modeling tools. The advanced Earth observing system will incorporate an integrated web of sensors deployed on the surface, in the air, and in space. The space-based assets will include both active and passive sensors in low Earth orbit, large aperture sensors in geostationary orbits, and sentinel satellites at L1 and L2. Data collected by these platforms will be coordinated by an advanced, semiautonomous, network that links these systems each other and provides a seamless interface with data processing centers. There, advanced numerical modeling tools will be used to rapidly assimilate, evaluate, and disseminate this information directly to users. To illustrate utility of this system architecture, we describe its application to studies of rapidly evolving natural hazards.
  • The Future of Instrument Technology for Space-based Remote Sensing for NASA’s Earth Science Enterprise  [ Presentation Download Powerpoint presentation ]
    IGARSS  07_10_08:40

    Authors: F. Peri, Jr., NASA Goddard Space Flight Center; J. Hartley, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center; J. Duda, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.

    Abstract: The vision of the Earth Science Enterprise (ESE) of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) established a variety of science challenges for the next 25 years, relating to predictions of weather, climate, and foreseeable changes in the Earth’s environment. In this paper, we discuss the attendant needs for space-based remote sensing technologies. In addition, we suggest some strategies for deploying the necessary assets.
  • Information System Technology Challenges for NASA’s Earth Science Enterprise   [ Presentation Download Powerpoint presentation ]
    IGARSS  07_10_09:00

    Authors: Glenn Prescott, NASA Headquarters; S. Smith, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center; K. More, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.

    Abstract: Future NASA Earth observing satellites will carry high-precision instruments capable of producing large amounts of scientific data. The anticipated networking of these instrument platforms into a web-like array of sensors creates significant challenges in the processing, transmission, storage and distribution of data and data products—the essential elements of what we refer to as "Information Technology". Future systems will require the fastest processors, the highest communication channel transfer rates, and the largest data storage capacity to insure that data flows smoothly from the satellite-based instrument to the ground-based archive. In this paper, we discuss those critical information technologies for Earth observing satellites that will support the next generation of space-based scientific measurements of planet Earth, and insure that data and information products provided by these systems will be accessible to scientists and the user community in general.
  • Earth Science Vision: Platform Technology Challenges   [ Presentation Download Powerpoint presentation ]
    IGARSS 07_10_09:20

    Authors: L. Lemmerman, Jet Propulsion Laboratory/CIT; K. Bhasin, NASA Glenn Research Center; J. Bristow, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.

    Advanced new platform technologies are critical to the realization of the Earth Science Vision in the 2020 time frame Examples of the platform technology challenges and current state-of-the-art capabilities are presented.
  • A Geosynchronous LIDAR System for Atmospheric Winds and Moisture Measurements   [ Presentation Download Powerpoint presentation ]
    IGARSS 07_10_09:40

    Author: G. Emmitt, Simpson Weather Associates, Inc.

    An observing system comprised of two LIDARS in geosynchronous orbit would enable synoptic and meso-scale measurement of atmospheric winds and moisture, both of which are key first-order variables of the Earth’s weather equation. Simultaneous measurement of these parameters at fast revisit rates promises large advancements in our weather prediction skills. Such unprecedented capabilities would a) yield greatly improved and finer resolution initial conditions for models, b) make existing costly and cumbersome measurement approaches obsolete, and c) obviate the use of numerical techniques needed to correct data obtained using present observing systems. Additionally, simultaneous synoptic wind and moisture observations would lead to improvements in model parameterizations, and in our knowledge of small-scale weather processes. Technology and science data product assessments are ongoing. Results will be presented during the conference.
  • A Geosynchronous Synthetic Aperture Radar; for Tectonic Mapping, Disaster Management and Measurements of Vegetation and Soil Moisture   [ Presentation Download Powerpoint presentation ]
    IGARSS  07_10_10:30

    Authors: S. Madsen, Jet Propulsion Laboratory; W. Edelstein, Jet Propulsion Laboratory; L. DiDomenico, Jet Propulsion Laboratory; J. LaBrecque, Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

    A geosynchronous synthetic aperture radar (SAR) with an orbit inclination of 50-65o can provide daily coverage of al of North and South America. Longitudinally, the width of the mapped area would be on the order of +50o at the Equator, somewhat more at the most northern/southern latitudes. Within the area mapped, very good temporal coverage can be obtained—up to several mappings during the 12 hours per day where the satellite is in the "right" hemisphere. This would be a key capability in relation to disaster management, tectonic mapping and modeling, vegetation and soil moisture mapping, and for operational and semi-operational requirements. A constellation of geosynchronous satellites could provide global coverage.
  • Interferometric Characterization of the Earth’s Atmosphere from Lagrange Point 2   [ Presentation Download Powerpoint presentation ]
    IGARSS  07_10_10:50

    Author: J. Herman, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.

    Not available
  • Processors, Pipelines, and Protocols for Advanced Modeling Networks   [ Presentation Download Powerpoint presentation ]
    IGARSS  07_10_11:10

    Authors: J. Coughlan, NASA Ames Research Center; E. Bjorkstedt, Santa Cruz Laboratory.

    Abstract: NASA’s Earth Science Enterprise has established the goal of developing a predictive capability for the Earth System. NASA uses the vantage point of space to provide information about Earth’s land, atmosphere, ice, oceans, and biota that is obtainable in no other way. To enhance predictive capabilities, NASA is planning a sensor web to collect data across a range of spatio-temporal scales. The end-to-end process of data collection, data assimilation, biogeophysical modeling and prediction is inseparable and predominately enabled by software. Software transforms the raw data into usable products and information and software disseminates these products to end-users. New information system technologies are needed to enable better prediction, flexible data assimilation and model coupling to build integrated Earth system models. Advancement of our modeling capabilities will require not only faster processing, but new programming methods, new algorithms, high-speed data pipelines, and interoperable architectures that allow the networking of diverse Earth System models.

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