Title: A Smart Sensor Web for Ocean Observation: System Design, Modeling, and Optimization
Primary Author: Arabshahi, Payman
Organization: University of Washington
Co-Author(s): Payman Arabshahi, Bruce M. Howe, Yi Chao, Sumit Roy, Tim McGinnis, Andrew Gray
In many areas of Earth science, including climate change research and operational oceanography, there is a need for near real-time integration of data from heterogeneous and spatially distributed sensors, in particular in-situ and space-based sensors. The data integration, as provided by a smart sensor web, enables numerous improvements, namely, 1) adaptive sampling for more efficient use of expensive space-based and in situ sensing assets, 2) higher fidelity information gathering from data sources through integration of complementary data sets, and 3) improved sensor calibration. Our ocean-observing smart sensor web presented herein is composed of both mobile and fixed underwater in-situ ocean sensing assets and Earth Observing System (EOS) satellite sensors providing larger-scale sensing. An acoustic communications network forms a critical link in the web, facilitating adaptive sampling and calibration. We report on the development of various elements of the smart sensor web, including (a) a cable-connected mooring system with a profiler under real-time control with inductive battery charging; (b) a glider with integrated acoustic communications and broadband receiving capability; (c) an integrated acoustic navigation and communication network; (d) satellite sensor elements; and (e) a predictive model via the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) interacting with satellite sensor control. We also report on two major field experiments carried out in October 2008 and November 2009 to demonstrate our semi-closed-loop sensor web concept, and for the first time, formation flights between underwater Seagliders and NASA satellites.